El Salvador and Central America before the Spanish conquest. Tazumal ruins in Santa Ana, El Salvador. Before the Spanish conquestthe area that is known as El Salvador was composed of three indigenous states and several principalities.
Ancient Historical Origins of Korean Culture Though this introductory section ostensibly has little to do with the contemporary situation in Korea, in fact it is very important for understanding the rich history and unity of the Korean culture.
For as we are beginning to realize more and more, the presence of the past is always here. Everything is related to everything. We can only ignore this principle at our own peril, which in turn robs us of the incredibly profound input of a vast sea of indispensable wisdom.
It helps explain how deep is the passion for the reunification of a people who share a long, evolved history with one another. There are no regions in the Western world that possess a million-plus year history of human activity as does the Korean Peninsula.
And the Korean culture possesses a 5, year distinct, unified homogenous history devoid of ethnic minorities. Never was Korea divided until the 38th Parallel was cruelly imposed upon it in by the United States. Korea has never been an aggressor nation. Instead, it has suffered a long history of being aggressed upon by other outside nations, both Asian and Western.
In contrast, the earliest record of human activity in the Western Hemisphere according to carbon dating is no more than 45, years, but most evidence makes a more comfortable estimate of 30, years or less. And since there were no Eurocentric or New World societies until after the Conquest of the original Indigenous societies that occurred from the late s through the s, the longest period of organized society we in the West possess is no more than years old.
The Republic of the United States of America, and its Europeon antecedent communities, only go back years. There is evidence that some of the Indigenous stock in the Western hemisphere originated in portions of Asia, including the Korean Peninsula.
Chinese and Japanese influences have been strong throughout Korean history but the Koreans descended as a distinct racial and cultural group from Tungusic Siberian ethnic groups tribal peoples from central Asia and Manchuria. A peninsula miles long, north-south, with an average width of miles, it is separated from China by as little as miles on the west by the Yellow Sea and Korean Bay, a northern section of the Yellow Sea while sharing a mile northern boundary with China marked by the great Yalu River.
It also shares an 11 mile northeast boundary with Russia marked by the Tumen River. It is separated from Japan on the east by the Sea of Japan.
The large volcanic Cheju Island, a part of Korea 70 miles south of the mainland, lies between the Korean Strait to its north and the East China Sea to its south. Korea has some 3, islands and islets, mostly in the south and west. Traces of the earliest ancestors of modern humans have been discovered in tropical eastern sub-Sahara Africa as early as 5 million years ago.
Homo Erectus grade hominids were present in the Peninsula of Korea, eastern portions of China, southern Asia, and central India more than one million years ago.
There is evidence of occupation through hunter-gatherer and burial sites from this period, such as at Tongsamdong in southeastern Korea near present day Pusanalong with pottery, stone agricultural tools, and cereal cultivation of millet.
Some scholars identify this period as the beginning of a continuous evolution of a distinct culture, meaning that by 2, A. The spread of rice farming reached northern areas of the Peninsula by B.
Iron Age culture became widespread in southern Korea by the second century B.
Chariot fittings have been found near Pyongyang and the Taedong River basin that flows from northeast to southeast through Pyongyang. Confucianism, a learning and social philosophy rooted in a series of particular relationships among and between family, friends, and rulers, became prominent from the third century B.
After the schism in the Buddhist religion in northeast India in the first century A. By about the fourth century B. The Kingdom of Koguryo established the first native Korean state near the Yalu River separating present day China from northern Korea in the north in 37 B.
Koguryo expanded its territory well into eastern Manchuria present day northeast China in the north, as far south near the Han River flows through present day Seoul in proximity of where the other two major kingdoms emerged, Paekche c.
Many sites have been found of lavishly furnished tombs for the elite in Koguryo society, adorned with exquisite paintings. Among the grave offerings were elaborate gold crowns and other jewelry of gold and wire. A fourth kingdom of Kaya in the far southeast west of the Naktong River and present day Pusan exported fine stoneware pottery to Japan.
Kaya tribes were soon incorporated into Silla. Cultural elements from China, northern nomadic tribes, Lolang, and the Buddhist religion were incorporated during this period of Koguryo dominance.
Iron technology in this period became stronger and sharper as it was incorporated into weapons and agricultural tools. Korean literary tradition adopted the Chinese language and its ideograph written system representing an idea or object directly rather than a particular word system.
Korea prospered as each king was surrounded by a warrior aristocracy and a skillful bureaucracy that ruled over a peasantry class which provided the manpower for military, agricultural, and technical industry.
The arts flourished and Buddhism became the dominant religion. In the Silla dynasty was overthrown relatively peacefully by the Koryo dynasty at which time literature was cultivated and Confucianism from China controlled the pattern of government even though Buddhism remained the state religion.
In Mongol forces invaded from China and eventually the Koryo kings accepted Mongol rule.The colonial period. The Spanish conquest and colonization of El Salvador began in with the arrival of an expedition from Guatemala led by Pedro de Alvarado.
Alvarado’s troops met determined opposition from a Nahua tribe, the Pipil, that occupied much of the region west of the Lempa River.
South Africa’s student movement focussed around calls for the removal of a statue of the imperialist megalomaniac and renowned ‘philanthropist’, Cecil John Rhodes, from the University of Cape Town. Geographical Divisions of Colonial Nicaragua: Impacts on Development in the Indigenous Territories Pre-Colonial History.
Nicaragua in its pre-colonial days was very similar to the rest of Latin America. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and parts of Southern Mexico. The first conquest into Nicaragua . Somos Primos.
JULY, Editor: Mimi Lozano © Dedicated to Hispanic Heritage and Diversity Issues Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research. At that time the northern part of the country was inhabited by the Sumo Amerindians, the eastern region by the Miskitos, and the region around Lakes Nicaragua and Managua by agricultural tribes.
The first Spanish settlements in Nicaragua were founded by the conquistador Gil González de Ávila in A Basic History of Nicaragua. June 24, July 15, On the Pacific side of Nicaragua are the two largest fresh water lakes in Central America—Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua.
Surrounding these lakes and extending to their northwest along the rift valley of the Gulf of Fonseca are fertile lowland plains, El Güegüense.