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While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as "The Big Five" personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills.
Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes.
Do not distinguish between the leadership attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership.
Attribute pattern approach[ edit ] Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach. Behavioral and style theories[ edit ] Main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
Why doesn’t Frito-Lay make all its 41 products at each of its plants? 2. Problem (page ) – Peter Rourke, a loan processor at Wentworth Bank, has been timed performing four work elements, with the results shown in the following table. We make a better web with finely crafted websites and tools for content creators.. We make the internet better with consultative creative and engineering services, innovative tools, and dependable products that take the pain out of content creation and management, in service of digital experiences that advance business and marketing objectives. Education. Mohawk Valley Community College-Utica Branch Associate of Arts and Sciences (A.A.S.), Business, Management, Marketing, and Related Support ServicesTitle: Director Of Transportation at .
To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision makingpraise and criticism feedbackand the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions  The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with their followers, defines goals, and determine how tasks are performed.
These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. Although they similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they did contribute an additional behavior identified in leaders.
This was participative behavior; allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input. Another term used to describe this is "Servant Leadership", which entails the leader to reject a more controlling type of leadership and allow more personal interaction between themselves and their subordinates.
Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future.
Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day.
The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised.
In this example, praise the stimulus is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives at work on time the behavior more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time.
The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates.
Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs. Situational and contingency theories[ edit ] Main articles: Fiedler contingency modelVroom—Yetton decision modelpath—goal theoryand situational leadership theory Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership.
Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx said that the times produce the person and not the other way around.
According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions.
Building upon the research of Lewin et al. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems.
Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability later called situational control.
The theory defined two types of leader: Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation.PepsiCo has an integrated approach to the 10 strategic decisions of operations management (OM).
This approach considers variations in PepsiCo’s business areas and markets, as well as different productivity requirements based on product, market conditions, and other variables.
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