Yorke, Mantz and Longden, Bernard Learning, juggling and achieving: Composition Otondo, Felipe Sarnath. Hemming, Laurence and Hemming, L.
R 2 in which n is from Empirical chemicals b merseyside and rotterdam to 4, preferably 2, and R1 and R2 each represents an alkylene carboxylic acid, preferably containing from 2 to 6 and particularly 3 carbons.
In a number of embodiments, it has been found to be especially suitable to employ from 0. In the fourth step, an antiperspirant, or possibly an alternative or additional salt, is mixed with the cooled emulsion. By delaying introduction of the salt until the emulsion has cooled, the risk is reduced of the salt destabilising the emulsion.
During steps iii and ivit is of practical benefit to continue to agitate the emulsion and it is often convenient to employ high shear conditions, such as those employed during step ii.
Thereby, in step ivthe water content of the emulsion is also increased. It is often convenient to conduct all of steps i to iv under conditions of high shear. The introduction of the hydratable polymer into the emulsion, and particularly the modified starch, results in a thickening of the emulsion, not only during the manufacturing process, but also after the introduction of the antiperspirant salt.
In practice, it is often desirable to employ sufficient polymer for the emulsion containing the antiperspirant or other salt to attain a viscosity of at least mPa. This can enable the emulsion to be tailored to provide simultaneously phase stability and a suitable viscosity for easy employment in roll-on dispensers.
The employment of more viscous formulations, such as in the range of to mPa.
The aqueous emulsions produced herein demonstrate resistance to phase separation. Stability is shown by the mean droplet size not varying with storage.
Formulations according to the present invention have demonstrated such a stability pattern. By contrast, related formulations with the presence of the hydratable polymer have shown considerable instability in the emulsion within a short storage period, even as short as a day.
Instability is typically manifested by the larger droplets coalescing, leaving the smaller droplets in suspension, and thereby resulting in a substantial alteration in the mean droplet size as measured eg by a conventional Malvern particle size analyser, the measurements being conducted on a sample taken from halfway up the height of the stored formulation.
Aqueous Phase It will be recognised that the incorporation of antiperspirant salts, and particularly zirconium salts, poses a stringent challenge to the phase stability of emulsions. The salt is wholly or predominantly an antiperspirant salt when the emulsion is intended for topical application to the human body to control perspiration, but other topically effective water-soluble salts can be contemplated where the emulsion is intended for other functions.
Astringent aluminium salts include aluminium chloride and aluminium halohydrates having the general formula Al2 OH xQy. A range of zirconium salts which can be employed in antiperspirant compositions herein is represented by the following empirical general formula: ZrO OH 2n-nzBz in which z is an integer or non-integer in the range of from 0.
Antiperspirant complexes based on the above-mentioned astringent salts are known and employable in the present invention.Tata Chemicals Europe (formerly Brunner Mond (UK) Limited) is a UK-based chemicals company that is a subsidiary of Tata Chemicals Limited, itself a part of the India-based Tata attheheels.com principal products are soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and associated alkaline chemicals.
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M. Avendano 1, M. M. Glymour 2, J. P. Mackenbach 1. 1 Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2 Department of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Background and ObjectivesThere are enormous variations . View Essay - BA Paper - attheheels.com from BA at University of the Philippines Diliman. BA Empirical Chemicals, Ltd. (B): Merseyside and Rotterdam Projects Case Study (Bonus) Background. The B case extends the analysis in the A case (UVA-F) to the next level, where the executive must choose between two mutually exclusive plant-renovation pr.
(B): MERSEYSIDE AND ROTTERDAM PROJECTS Trevor Livesey, executive vice president of the Intermediate Chemicals Group (ICG) of Empirical Chemicals (EC), met with his financial analyst, Karen Cooper, to review two mutually exclusive capital-expenditure proposals.