Challenging behaviour Challenging behaviour Some autistic people can display challenging behaviour. It includes what would normally be considered physically aggressive behaviour, but can also include other behaviours if they are having a negative impact on the person or their family.
Timothy Broady Persona Studies1. In mediating between a person s subjective inner world and the external social world, the persona represents a generalised idea of the self which builds up from experiences of interacting with society.
Such reflections of self-identity can therefore develop across multiple domains of a person s life, culminating in understandings of self in a variety of specific roles.
The existence of multiple personas can be clearly demonstrated in the context of people providing unpaid care for a family member or friend who has a disability, mental illness, chronic condition, or who is frail.
Carers are likely to possess multiple roles as an individual, existing across various social and personal domains. This paper argues that in caring for loved one, a compromise takes place between individual selves and the social caring role.
That is, the carer persona can mask a carer s individual identities and their associated needs. The potential complexity of caring roles is therefore explored, with an emphasis on acknowledging the personal needs and identities of carers beyond their caring roles. This acknowledgment has implications for service delivery and policy development regarding carers and those for whom they care.
This compromise represents a potential conflict between who a person is and who they believe they ought to appear to be.
This serves the simultaneous functions of hiding one s true self and making desired impressions on others, while also enabling a person to avoid the emotional closeness or vulnerability that comes with revealing the entirety of the self Hudson Due to its function of hiding the true selfthe concept of persona has been likened to a mask — a social role that a person employs to mediate between the inner world of the self and the external social world udson.
As opposed to a true representation of the inner self, the persona is thought to be a constructed identity that is built up based on social interactions and expectations of others Jung Collected Works Vol. Any role a person undertakes brings certain expectations regarding how to behave within that role, that is, a role specific persona.
This compliance with social expectations over the self represents the falsehood that underpins the persona. Since the persona is constructed through cumulative social experiences, these projections of self can develop across a wide range of domains in a person s life, such as family, work, and the wider community.
As well as originating through these various social interactions, the persona can be seen to develop into a series of specific roles or identities across multiple contexts Hudson Understanding the persona in terms of a relationship with the social world suggests that it is possible to take on new social identities or withdraw from existing ones under changing circumstances and contexts.
For example, a person who identifies with a professional persona in the workplace may then identify with a parent persona upon returning home to the family environment, and will behave accordingly in each situation.
In this way, the persona may be interpreted as a unified public identity that masks a series of individual identities, each of whom has their own individual needs.
While no persona can accurately reflect the full extent of a person s individuality, it is important that it is flexible enough to allow a person to adapt to the multiple roles played across the breadth of social experience. While useful in directing an individual s behaviour and interaction with social environments, there can be danger in identifying too closely with a persona, such as losing sight of the true self.
Those who identify with their persona do not acknowledge any aspect of themselves beyond their social roles to the detriment of their true self s needs. The persona may then become more than a context-specific role, but overtakes patterns of behaviour in all situations. As will be elaborated in the sections that follow, carers are likely to identify with a vast range of roles throughout the course of their caring and broader life experiences.
For example, carers may undertake roles related to their various family relationships, employment situation, or other 66 Persona Studies1. Furthermore, depending on the individual caring situation, multiple personas are likely to exist as carers present themselves to the social world in different contexts.
Carers are not a homogenous group, with significant diversity existing across individual carers, relationships, and the situations in which they care. Carers exist in all communities and population subgroups, including Aboriginal communities, those of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, amongst gendered and sexually diverse groups, and throughout metropolitan, regional and rural areas.
Carers diversity is therefore evident in terms of cultural background, geographical region, age, socioeconomic status, their relationships with those they care for, and the range of conditions, illness or disabilities experienced by care recipients, to name just a few examples.
As will be outlined in the following paragraphs, carers are likely to have different needs across their multiple roles and across the multiple dimensions of their own identities.
This will provide insight into carers multifaceted experiences and will lead to a discussion of what will be termed the carer persona — illustrating the personal compromises and sacrifices that many carers make in fulfilling their vital social roles.
These examples are not intended to provide an exhaustive list, but rather aim to highlight several of the possible roles and personas a carer may undertake. Carer as woman or carer as man As discussed by Ussher and colleagues, caring is not a gender-neutral experience, but is associated with a carers expectations of being a woman or a man Ussher et al.
Gendered stereotypes have been found to play a significant role in carers reasons for taking on caring responsibilities, with the social pressure felt by women to assume caring roles contributing to their disproportionate overrepresentation within caring populations Alpass et al.
The traditional view of caring responsibilities being a female role within the family can also impact male carers experiences. For example, caring may present alternative ways of expressing masculinity, or may assist in re-constructing gender identities Eriksson et al.
It is important to acknowledge that carers have specific needs and identities as either men or women, as well as the identities they develop in their caring roles.Figure 1: Developmental framework of consumer and carer participation for young client's and their parents.
The line denoting the extent of consumer participation by young clients and parents refers to their capacity to provide the consumer voice on services received by . Family Carer Support Materials Developing Carer Skills Communication for Carers 29 4 Communicating with family and friends Legal and medical matters Talking about and organising care arrangements with family can be a good and bad experience.
Ways member of a culture vary in terms of their child rearing techniques seen as most desirable in that country. This can affect infant's development and behaviour, leading to cultural differences in attachment type.
E.g. in Japan, rare to leave infant alone, rarely left in care of others. Describe The Difficulties And Rewards Of Being A Carer For A Family Member.
the difficulties and rewards of caring for a family member, by referring to the case of Ann and Angus. Ann cares for her 72 year old step father Angus after the death of her mother.
Question: Describe the difficulties and rewards of being a carer for a family member. Answer: A carer is a person of any age or gender who looks after a friend relative or partner in need of assistance with personal and domestic activities of daily living.
Just as in the wider population, assaults against people with disability are more likely to be perpetrated by somebody they know, such as a family member, carer, work colleague or someone they live with.